he use of inverted microscope systems (such as the XploRA INV opens up the technique for characterisation of samples which cannot be analysed on upright microscopes. In addition to Raman analysis and 3D fluorescence FCI (Fast Confocal Imaging) standard microscope techniques can also be used on the same instrument, including epifluorescence, micro manipulators and injectors, optical tweezers, micro-fluidic cells, and specific environment enclosures.
Areas which benefit from Raman spectroscopy include:
- cell research
- disease detection
- drug design and pharmaceutical materials
- characterisation of drug-cell interactions
- microbiology and cell sorting
- cosmetics and in vivo skin analysis
- stents and implants
White light image (left), fluorescence FCI image (center) and hyperspectral fluorescence image (right) of doxorubicin in a cancer cell. The spectral image illustrates the DNA bound drug complex (DOX-DNA – red) and two cytosolic complexes of the drug (DOX – green and blue). Data courtesy of Prof. Igor Chourpa, Université de Tours, France.
Analysis results for human colonic tissue section (A) optical image of histopathologic HE stained tissue, (B) Raman mapped image illustrating intensity of the Amide I band, and (C) pseudo-colour Raman maps created by using K-means cluster analysis in which each cluster (consisting of similar spectra) is assigned to one colour, and illustrates the presence of DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Data courtesy of Prof. Michel Manfait, Université de Reims, France.
Raman spectrum of a single bacterium, with peak labelling showing principal chemical species – (N) nucleic acids, (PA) phenylalanine, (C) carbohydrate, (P) proteins, and (L) lipids. The cluster diagram on the right hand side illustrates the capability for Raman to distinguish bacteria species – (a – red) Acinetobacter sp., (b – blue) ADP1 E. Coli DH5a, and (c – green) Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25. Data courtesy of Dr Wei Huang, University of Sheffield, UK, and Prof. Andrew Whiteley, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, UK.
- RA04 : In vivo Raman Measurements of Human Skin.
- RA05 : SERS analysis of single living lymphocytes.
- RA06 : Raman analysis of single bacteria cells.
- RA07 : Raman mapping of wheat grain kernels.
- RA08 : SERS for Intracellular Imaging.
- RA09 : Insights into thrombosis mechanisms using high resolution SERS.
- RA49 : Raman Analysis of Sperm Nuclear DNA Integrity.
- RA57 : Raman Imaging of monkey brain tissue
- RA59 : Raman investigation of microorganisms on a single cell level.
- RA60 : Investigating the Atherosclerosis Process by Monitoring Lipid Deposits Including Cholesterol and Free Fatty Acids.
- RA62 : Direct identification of clinically relevant microorganisms on solid culture media by Raman spectroscopy